Global optimization techniques learning and more scholar news? Eukaryotic cells rely on a surveillance mechanism, the “Spindle Assembly Checkpoint” SAC M in order to ensure accurate chromosome segregation by preventing anaphase initiation until all chromosomes are correctly attached to the mitotic spindle. In different organisms, a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) composed of Mad2, Bub3, BubR1/Mad3, and Cdc20 inhibits the anaphase promoting complex (APC/C) to initiate promotion into anaphase. The mechanism of MCC formation and its regulation by the kinetochore are unclear. Here, we constructed dynamical models of MCC formation involving different kinetochore control mechanisms including amplification as well as inhibition effects, and analysed their quantitative properties. In particular, in this system, fast and stable metaphase to anaphase transition can only be triggered when the kinetochore controls the Bub3.
Diabetes is a major and growing public health challenge which threatens to overwhelm medical services in the future. Type 2 diabetes confers significant morbidity and mortality, most notably with target organ damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. The magnitude of cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes is best illustrated by its position as a coronary heart disease risk equivalent. Complications related to neuropathy are also vast, often working in concert with vascular abnormalities and resulting in serious clinical consequences such as foot ulceration. Increased understanding of the natural history of this disorder has generated the potential to intervene and halt pathological progression before overt disease ensues, after which point management becomes increasingly challenging. The concept of prediabetes as a formal diagnosis has begun to be translated from the research setting to clinical practice.
Every cell division in budding yeast is inherently asymmetric and counts on the correct positioning of the mitotic spindle along the mother-daughter polarity axis for faithful chromosome segregation. A surveillance mechanism named the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC), monitors the orientation of the mitotic spindle and prevents cells from exiting mitosis when the spindle fails to align along the mother-daughter axis. SPOC is essential for maintenance of ploidy in budding yeast and similar mechanisms might exist in higher eukaryotes to ensure faithful asymmetric cell division. Here, we review the current model of SPOC activation and highlight the importance of protein localization and phosphorylation for SPOC function. See additional information on Bashar Ibrahim.
Here, we show that the existence of these chemical organizations and therefore steady states is linked to the existence of cycles. Importantly, we provide a criterion for a qualitative transition, namely a transition from one self-sustaining set of molecular species to another via the introduction of a cycle. Because results purely based on topology do not yield sufficient conditions for dynamic properties, e.g. stability, other tools must be employed, such as analysis via ordinary differential equations. Hence, we study a special case, namely a particular type of reflexive autocatalytic network. Applications for this can be found in nature, and we give a detailed account of the mitotic spindle assembly and spindle position checkpoints. From our analysis, we conclude that the positive feedback provided by these networks’ cycles ensures the existence of a stable positive fixed point.